Four studies relating to zuclopenthixol decanoate were included. All compared zuclopenthixol decanoate with other depot preparations. Zuclopenthixol decanoate prevented or postponed relapses when compared to other depots ( NNT 8, CI 5-53). However, zuclopenthixol decanoate may induce more adverse effects (NNH 5, CI 3-31) although it decreases need for anticholinergic medication when compared to a group of other depot preparations ( NNT 9, CI 5-38). For the risk of leaving the study early, there was also a trend for benefit to those allocated to zuclopenthixol decanoate. None of the studies reported outcomes on service utilisation, costs, or quality of life.
Zuclopenthixol, also known as Zuclopentixol or Zuclopenthixolum, is an antipsychotic agent. Zuclopenthixol is a thioxanthene-based neuroleptic with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Major brands of zuclopenthixol are Cisordinol, Acuphase, and Clopixol. This drug is a liquid. This compound belongs to the thioxanthenes. These are organic polycyclic compounds containing a thioxanthene moiety, which is an aromatic tricycle derived from xanthene by replacing the oxygen atom with a sulfur atom. Known drug targets of zuclopenthixol include 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A, D(1B) dopamine receptor, D(2) dopamine receptor, D(1A) dopamine receptor, and alpha-1A adrenergic receptor. It is known that zuclopenthixol is metabolized by Cytochrome P450 2D6. Zuclopenthixol was approved for use in Canada in 2011, but is not approved for use in the United States.
Fluphenazine came into use in 1959.  The injectable form is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system .  It is available as a generic medication .  In the United States the tablets costs between and USD per day for a typical dose.  The wholesale cost in the developing world of the long acting form is between and USD per injection as of 2014.  It was discontinued in Australia around mid 2017.