decoctions - tough parts of the plant are boiled in water; the liquid containing the active ingredients is then strained.
tinctures - the herb is soaked in alcohol and water for two weeks, then strained in a muslin-lined wine press.
infusions - the herbs are covered with very hot water and left to steep for ten minutes. The resulting liquid is much like a tea, and may be sweetened with honey.
infused oils - used for massage, these oils may be made by placing the herbs and oil over heat, or they may just be left in sunlight.
creams - oil, water, glycerine and herbs are simmered for several hours, before being strained and left to set.
ointments - oil and herbs are combined over heat, then strained and left to set. These are particularly useful for when the skin needs to be protected from moisture.
The intravenous route is not FDA approved and is generally not recommended except when no other alternatives are available. Intravenous administration appears to be associated with a higher risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) than other forms of administration. The manufacturer recommends ECG monitoring for QT prolongation and arrhythmias if IV administration is required. A dose in the range of 1 to 5 mg IV has been suggested, with the dose being repeated at 30 to 60 minute intervals, if needed. A maximum IV dose has not been established. The lowest effective dose should be used in conjunction with conversion to oral therapy as soon as possible.